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Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. This article seeks to establish the connection—via shared discourse—between Incels and mainstream pornography.

With an interdisciplinary approach which involves a Corpus Linguistics analysis of Reddit forum data, research into digital behaviors, and a feminist critique, this article focuses on the commonalities between the language of pornography and that of Incels. In doing so, it demonstrates how both pornography and Incels are different manifestations of the same misogyny. The findings of this study highlight the normalization of violence against women VAWwhich continues to be endemic in society, enabled and exacerbated by contemporary technologies.

This article seeks to establish the connection—via shared discourse—between those who identify as involuntary celibates online henceforth Incels and mainstream pornography. We want to move beyond a simplistic pro-porn or anti-porn dichotomy that discourages debate, and instead provide evidence of its commonalities with other practices that are more often seen as aspects of the ongoing normalization of violence against women VAW and whose misogynistic nature, therefore, tends to be taken more seriously.

We start by comparing extreme porn reddit language used by Incels on the news aggregator site Reddit with the language of a larger sample of Reddit thre. The linguistic analysis is carried out using a bottom-up mixed-method approach which does not impose predetermined onto our data but, instead, allows themes and patterns to arise gradually from our data Baker et al.

Thus, a quantitative analysis using Corpus Linguistic is carried out to process a large amount of linguistic data and observe dominant patterns and themes based on word frequency and word co-occurrence incidence. This is followed by a qualitative investigation which involves the contextualization of linguistic data in the broader context of Incel ideology. In this phase, the findings from the linguistic analysis are also evaluated against what the existing literature has argued about mainstream pornography.

Incels have recently generated large amounts of interest, both inside and outside academia Ging, a ; Jaki et extreme porn reddit. Some research has also established links between these men and pornography. For example, Burnett has shown that nofap abstention from masturbation, particularly to pornography is a common theme among these men, arguably pointing to an underlying concern about pornography addiction.

Jaki et al. However, debates about Incels and mainstream pornography mostly run parallel to each other.

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On the other, pornography extreme porn reddit widely perceived as non-threatening and harmless because it is seen as fiction MacKinnon,and, arguably, its influence is often underestimated. Yet, the effects that this large exposure, at increasingly younger ages, is having on society is concerning. For instance, for a large of children and young people, including girls and young women, pornography now plays a key role in their sexual education Lim et al. Some of the most popular accessed through pornographic websites include violence and aggression toward young women Bridges et al.

As a matter of fact, at the time of writing, pornographic websites such as PornHub. Similarly, Incels have drawn on and added to the repertoire of sexist language available to them. The development of this community was also favored by the internet, which has allowed its members to form their own shared values, meanings, and ideologies that appear contrary to wider society King, While differences between mainstream pornography and Incels exist—the former is a lucrative industry and, technically, a form of filmmaking, whereas the latter are an online community of men who articulate their frustrations in shared forums—they speak a common language which highlights the structural misogyny that underpins both.

It is perhaps unattainable to establish with absolute certainty how these similarities have developed— that is, if Incels have learned about sex and women through pornography or if pornography is their weapon against women. To expose the commonalities between VAW, pornography, and Incel misogyny, we chose not to censor the offensive language used in these spaces Jane,p.

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Their misogyny is often seen as an issue of a small group of deviant individuals, whose problematic attitudes toward women are exclusively attributed to their personality, as individual deviance or mental illness, and without connection to structural misogyny or patriarchal systems of socialization Manne, As a consequence, the amount of direct abuse displayed toward them on the site is relatively low; nevertheless, the level of misogyny is high.

Therefore, these public discussions are a valuable tool to investigate the motivations, reasoning, and conceptual frames that support online misogyny in the Incel community—rather than to study direct harassment—and to highlight the commonalities they share with the belief systems that sustain other forms of online and offline VAW, including mainstream pornography. In fact, we argue that, like offline violence, online abuse also happens on a continuum; this spectrum, however, does not simply range from unpleasant, sporadic, nonthreatening direct or indirect messages to frequent, highly threatening, hateful content Lewis et al.

Thus, both mainstream pornography and Incel misogyny should be incorporated in wider forms of VAW. The link between mainstream heterosexual pornography the most popular and widespread type of pornography and the extreme porn reddit that is being discussed here and online VAW is not necessarily an obvious one.

In fact, the conceptualization of pornography as generally and inherently misogynistic is not without criticism Strossen, Admittedly, our claim is that it is the way in which male—female relationships including male and female sexuality are understood in society that is misogynistic and is reflected in a series of practices shaped by this structural misogyny. Several studies Brownmiller, ; Dines, ; Dworkin, ; Paul, have highlighted that what makes modern pornography, particularly online mainstream gonzo pornography, misogynistic is its tendency to objectify and dehumanize women.

The verbal and visual subordination of women takes several forms.

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For example, Bridges et al. They also identified a correlation between the physical and verbal aggression of women, with the latter representing a strong predictor of the presence of the former. While the verbal sexual degradation of women was not invented by pornography, but is a well-documented phenomenon Penelope, ; Romaine,pornography draws heavily on this language, with name-calling being one of the most common forms of verbal aggression Bridges et al.

However, although cunt, bitch, whore, slut continue to be some of the most commonly used forms of language abuse against extreme porn reddit in pornographic videos Bridges et al. Pornography, therefore, is both a perpetuating and innovative practice of misogyny. Reducing women to objects in pornography is a precondition to make the violence they endure look acceptable. When women stop being people, acts of violence against them stop being harmful, as objects cannot be harmed.

The legitimation of VAW in pornography is also supported by two latent assumptions. The illusion of consent covers the sexist nature of these acts and allows the refusal of sex not only to become indistinguishable from the desire of sex, but also normalized and eroticized.

While women become powerless in pornography—as willing actors who ask to be acted upon—men become powerful and always obtain as much sex as they want, how they want it. Pornographic acts also have tangible effects on real people Clark-Flory, As suggested by Lewis et al. In this sense, pornography can be understood as a speech act with both an illocutionary and perlocutionary dimension Austin, ; Langton, Thus, as a speech act, pornography performs and reifies gender inequality and, due to its pervasiveness, its ramifications spread beyond those who extreme porn reddit watch it.

Langton further suggests that pornography shares these features with misogynistic hate speech, in that both can depict, causeand be subordination at the same time. Thus, we argue that, like pornography, Incel misogyny is a speech act whose perlocutionary effect is to silence women, police their behavior and, ultimately, harm them. Digital technologies are embedded into our everyday lives due to the symbiotic relationship between technology and society Powell et al.

While, arguably, digital technologies or the internet and, consequently, many of the practices that take place online are shaped by structural misogyny technology has been created by people who have been conditioned by patriarchal structuresthese are not causal in the abuse of women they do not pre-exist hatred against women. Nevertheless, digital technologies have created new ways for hatred to advance and disseminate in unprecedented ways. In particular, online communities and virtual platforms have provided the means for collective animosity to advance on an exponential scale.

As Perry highlights, the internet is a means of connecting like-minded individuals. For example, members of hate movements that were ly fractured were brought together and facilitated in the process of creation of a collective identity and empowering sense of community. However, the term has now been appropriated by a group of aggrieved men to exclude women and propagate misogyny.

Incels have a strict social hierarchy, mostly based on appearance and wealth. With Incels at the bottom, this hierarchy includes Ch and Stacies. Ch are the embodiment of the alpha male, and diametrically opposed to Incels. Stacies are attractive women who will only have sex with Ch Incel Wiki, Blaming feminists for their misery gives these men to abuse in order to redress the balance Jhaver et al.

Although the main interests of each group within the manosphere may differ, their common language creates a unified identity. While Incels are not an isolated phenomenon, they are considered particularly dangerous as they were associated with a series of killings committed in Toronto and Edmonton, Canada, and in the United States, in Oregon, Florida, New Mexico and, perhaps most notoriously, in California. In a video Kron 4, posted by Rodger just before the attack, he explained his motives:.

Reddit is a U. Members post content to the site, which is then voted up or down by other members. Posts are organized by subject into user-created boards called Subreddits. Some of the activity that led to the Subreddit being taken down included advice on how to get away with rape. This study is based on a comparison between two datasets: a study corpus henceforth IncelCorpus and a reference corpus henceforth RedditCorpus.

The IncelCorpus was collected from Pushshift. The timeframe in this corpus varies in each Subreddit, since with the Reddit API only extreme porn reddit maximum of 10 s per Subreddit can be retrieved; therefore, time scales depend on how quickly or slowly users post new thre to the Subreddit. This corpus contains a collection of Subreddits on disparate topics, amounting to 89, posts, and ca.

The RedditCorpus was used as a normative corpus Rayson, that represented the standard of how users talk on Reddit. The advantage of using a specific RedditCorpus as reference corpus is that, in the comparison, the latter is more likely to highlight features of language and discourse specific to Incels rather than to Reddit more generally e. This method allows one to for dispersion, discarding words that are very frequent only in some parts of the corpus in favor of words that are more homogeneously distributed throughout.

After extracting the keywords, these were clustered together into semantic groups to highlight dominant topics. Due to space limitations, only extreme porn reddit top 20 keywords are shown in the analysis, and a sample of words per semantic group is analyzed in detail using collocation and concordance analysis, which allowed us to conduct a closer reading and contextualization of texts.

The measure of proximity used here is a maximum of four words intervening on either side of a search term Sinclair,p. In addition to collocates, concordance lines were also extracted from the corpus. Concordance lines are instances of a word or phrase in context Hunston, that show the use of that specific word or phrase in-text. All the examples are reported as published, without changing spelling or grammar. This research took into the ethical implications of using online user-generated content. Considering that the forum thread was no longer available in the public domain, accessing the forum data without attempting to contact the community on Reddit was the most ethical course of action, as the covert approach enabled research to be undertaken without risk or harm to the community Sugiura et al.

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No personal data, including names, locations, or physical attributes were documented and any traceable information were anonymized or struck from the analysis. As shown in Table 1the focus of Incels appears to be on four main semantic : groups of people, relationships, physical attributes, and verbs. Table 1. The absence of a sub-categorization of women equivalent to that of men cf. Table 2.

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Most and many are quantifiers that aggregate women together van Leeuwen, and, like the plural form, reinforce the perception of women as a homogeneous group. Another frequent modifier of women is obese Table 2particularly in the discussion of the success of obese women as opposed to Incels in finding sexual partners.

This is expressed clearly by one of the users on the forum: There are many males that have literally zero options. This is why in a sexually free society, even the ugliest most deformed obese women can get males of average attractiveness. In this system, women are the gatekeepers of sex, while Incels are their victims. As shown in the following, it is particularly feminism—with the sexual liberation of women—that Incels blame for their misery.

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